|The Song of Bernadette|
Theatrical poster by Norman Rockwell
|Directed by||Henry King|
|Produced by||William Perlberg|
|Screenplay by||George Seaton|
|Based on||The Song of Bernadette
by Franz Werfel
|Music by||Alfred Newman|
|Cinematography||Arthur C. Miller|
|Edited by||Barbara McLean|
|Distributed by||20th Century Fox|
|Box office||$5 million (US/ Canada rentals)|
The Song of Bernadette is a 1943 biographical drama film based on the 1941 novel of the same name by Franz Werfel. It stars Jennifer Jones in the title role, which tells the story of Bernadette Soubirous (later canonized Saint Bernadette) who, from February to July 1858 in Lourdes, France, reported eighteen visions of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The film was directed by Henry King, from a screenplay written by George Seaton.
The novel was extremely popular, spending more than a year on The New York Times Best Seller list and thirteen weeks heading the list. The story was also turned into a Broadway play, which opened at the Belasco Theatre in March 1946.
François Soubirous (Roman Bohnen), a former miller now unemployed, is forced to take odd jobs and live at the city jail with his wife (Anne Revere), his two sons, and his two daughters. One morning he goes to find work, and is told to take contaminated trash from the hospital and dump it in the cave at Massabielle.
At the Catholic school (run by the Sisters of Charity of Nevers) that she and her sisters attend, fourteen-year-old Bernadette Soubirous (Jennifer Jones) is shamed in front of the class by Sister Vauzous, the teacher (Gladys Cooper), for not having learned her catechism well. Her sister Marie (Ermadean Walters) explains that Bernadette was out sick with asthma. Abbé Dominique Peyramale (Charles Bickford) enters and awards the students holy cards, but is told by Sister Vauzous that Bernadette does not deserve one because she has not studied, and that it would not be fair to the other students. Peyramale encourages Bernadette to study harder.
Later that afternoon, on an errand with her sister Marie and school friend Jeanne (Mary Anderson) to collect firewood outside the town of Lourdes, Bernadette is left behind when her companions warn her not to wade through the cold river by the Massabielle caves for fear of taking ill. About to cross anyway, Bernadette is distracted by a strange breeze and a change in the light. Investigating the cave, she finds a beautiful lady (Linda Darnell) standing in brilliant light, holding a pearl rosary. She tells her sister and friend, who promise not to tell anyone else. They do tell, however, and the story soon spreads all over town.
Many, including Bernadette’s Aunt Bernarde (Blanche Yurka), are convinced of her sincerity and stand up for her against her disbelieving parents, but Bernadette faces civil and church authorities alone. Repeatedly questioned, she stands solidly behind her seemingly unbelievable story and continues to return to the cave as the lady has asked. She faces ridicule as the lady tells her to drink and wash at a spring that doesn’t exist, but digs a hole in the ground and uses the wet sand and mud. The water begins to flow later and exhibits miraculous healing properties. The lady finally identifies herself as “the Immaculate Conception“. Civil authorities try to have Bernadette declared insane, while Abbé Peyramale, the fatherly cleric who once doubted her and now becomes her staunchest ally, asks for a formal investigation to find out if Bernadette is a fraud, insane, or genuine.
The grotto is closed and the Bishop of Tarbes (Charles Waldron) declares that unless the Emperor (Jerome Cowan) orders the grotto to be opened, there will be no investigation by the church. He says this will be a test for Bernadette’s “lady”. Shortly thereafter, the Emperor’s infant son falls ill and, under instructions from the Empress (Patricia Morison), the child’s nanny obtains a bottle of the water. Arrested for violating the closure order, she appears in court, identifies herself as the Empress’ employee, and pays the fines of the other persons who attempted to enter the grotto, so that they need serve no time in jail. The magistrate permits her to go and to take the bottle of water with her. The Emperor’s son drinks the water and recovers. The Empress believes that his recovery is miraculous, but the Emperor is not sure. The Empress upbraids him for doubting God, and at her insistence, the Emperor gives the order to reopen the grotto. The Bishop of Tarbes then directs the commission to convene. The investigation takes many years, and Bernadette is questioned again and again, but the commission eventually determines that Bernadette experienced visions and was visited by the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God.
Bernadette prefers to go on with an ordinary life, work, and possible marriage, but Peyramale does not think it is appropriate to turn Bernadette loose in the world, and persuades her to become a nun at the motherhouse of the Sisters of Charity in Nevers, the Saint Gildard Convent. She is subjected to normal although rigorous spiritual training and hard work, but also emotional abuse from a cold and sinister Sister Vauzous, her former school teacher, who is now mistress of novices at the convent. Sister Vauzous is skeptically jealous of all the attention Bernadette has been receiving as a result of the visions. She reveals this to Bernadette, saying she is angry that God would choose Bernadette instead of her when she has spent her life in suffering in service of God. She says Bernadette has not suffered enough and wants a “sign” proving Bernadette really was chosen by Heaven.
Bernadette makes a revelation to Sister Vauzous which is later diagnosed as tuberculosis of the bone. The condition causes intense pain, yet Bernadette has never complained or so much as mentioned it. The jealous sister, realizing her error and Bernadette’s saintliness, begs for forgiveness in the chapel, and vows to serve Bernadette for the rest of her life. Knowing she is dying, Bernadette sends for Abbé Peyramale (who in reality died a few years before Bernadette) and tells him of her feelings of unworthiness and her concern that she will never see the lady again. But the lady appears in the room, smiling and holding out her arms. Only Bernadette can see her, however, and with a cry of “I love you! I love you! Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for me”, she reaches out to the apparition, and falls back dead. Peyramale utters the final words of the film, “You are now in Heaven and on earth. Your life begins, O Bernadette”.
- Jennifer Jones as Bernadette Soubirous
- Charles Bickford as Abbé Dominique Peyramale
- William Eythe as Antoine Nicoleau
- Gladys Cooper as Marie Therese Vauzou, Mistress of Novices for Bernadette
- Vincent Price as Vital Dutour, Imperial Prosecutor
- Lee J. Cobb as Dr. Dozous
- Anne Revere as Louise Casterot Soubirous, Bernadette’s mother
- Roman Bohnen as François Soubirous, Bernadette’s father
- Mary Anderson as Jeanne Abadie, Bernadette’s friend
- Patricia Morison as Empress Eugenie
- Jerome Cowan as Emperor Napoleon III
- Aubrey Mather as Mayor Lacade
- Charles Dingle as Jacomet
- Edith Barrett as Croisine Bouhouhorts
- Sig Ruman as Louis Bouriette
- Blanche Yurka as Bernarde Casterot, Bernadette’s aunt
- Ermadean Walters as Marie Soubirous, Bernadette’s sister
- Marcel Dalio as Callet
- Pedro de Cordoba as Dr. LeCramps
- Linda Darnell as the Immaculate Conception (uncredited)
- Alan Napier as Dr. Debeau, the psychiatrist (uncredited)
- Connie Leon as Townswoman (uncredited)
- Edward Van Sloan as Doctor (uncredited)
The plot follows the novel by Franz Werfel, which is not a documentary but a historical novel blending fact and fiction. Bernadette’s real-life friend Antoine Nicolau is portrayed as being deeply in love with her and vowing to remain unmarried when Bernadette enters the convent. No such relationship is documented as existing between them. The government authorities, in particular Imperial Prosecutor Vital Dutour (played by Vincent Price) are portrayed as being much more anti-religion than they actually were, and in fact Dutour was himself a devout Catholic who simply thought Bernadette was hallucinating. Other portrayals come closer to historical accuracy, particularly Anne Revere and Roman Bohnen as Bernadette’s overworked parents, Charles Bickford as Father Peyramale, and Blanche Yurka as formidable Aunt Bernarde.
The film ends with the death of Bernadette and does not mention the exhumation of her body or her canonization, as the novel does.
The film combines the characters of Vital Dutour and the man of letters Hyacinthe de La Fite, who appears in the novel and believes he has cancer of the larynx. La Fite does not appear at all in the movie. In the film it is Dutour who is dying of cancer of the larynx at the end, and who goes to the Lourdes shrine, kneels at the gates to the grotto and says, “Pray for me, Bernadette.”
Igor Stravinsky was initially informally approached to write the film score. On 15 February 1943, he started writing music for the “Apparition of the Virgin” scene. However, the studio never approved a contract with Stravinsky, and the project went to Alfred Newman, who won an Oscar. The music Stravinsky had written for the film made its way into the second movement of his Symphony in Three Movements.
Awards and honors
The film was a great success both critically and financially. The Song of Bernadette won four Oscars in the 1943 Academy Awards:
- Best Actress in a Leading Role – Jennifer Jones
- Best Art Direction-Interior Decoration, Black-and-White – James Basevi, William S. Darling, and Thomas Little
- Best Cinematography, Black-and-White
- Best Music, Scoring of a Dramatic or Comedy Picture
In addition, the film was nominated for a further eight categories:
- Best Actor in a Supporting Role – Charles Bickford
- Best Actress in a Supporting Role – Gladys Cooper
- Best Actress in a Supporting Role – Anne Revere
- Best Director
- Best Film Editing
- Best Picture
- Best Sound, Recording – E. H. Hansen
- Best Writing, Screenplay
In the first Golden Globe Awards in 1944, the film won three awards:
- Best Director – Motion Picture
- Best Motion Picture – Drama
- Best Motion Picture Actress – Jennifer Jones
Also, the film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:
- The Song of Bernadette at the American Film Institute Catalog
- “The Song of Bernadette (1944)”. British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
- Stanley, Fred (7 March 1943). “A NEW SPIRITUAL RESURGENCE IN HOLLYWOOD: Studios Now Look Favorably On Religious Themes”. The New York Times. p. X3. (Subscription required (help)).
- “All-Time Top Grossers”, Variety, 8 January 1964 p 69
- “Top Grossers of the Season”. Variety. 5 January 1944. p. 54.
- Solomon, Aubrey (2002). Twentieth Century-Fox: A Corporate and Financial History. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 220. ISBN978-0810842441.
- “The Song of Bernadette”. Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- Trochu, François (1 January 1957). Saint Bernadette Soubirous: 1844-1879. Tan Books. ISBN978-1787201194. Trochu provides background information on Bernadette’s “inquisitors”, revealing that they were not atheists or even freethinkers.
- Walsh, Stephen (30 September 2011). Stravinsky: The Second Exile: France and America 1934-1971. p. 144. ISBN978-1407064482. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- “Movie Award Goes to Jennifer Jones”. The New York Times. United Press. 2 March 1944. Retrieved 5 September 2017. (Subscription required (help)).
- “The 16th Academy Awards (1944) Nominees and Winners”. oscars.org. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- “AFI’s 100 Years of Film Scores Nominees” (PDF). Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- “AFI’s 100 Years…100 Cheers Nominees” (PDF). Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- “Those Were the Days”. Nostalgia Digest. 41 (2): 32–41. Spring 2015.
- John Bear, The #1 New York Times Best Seller: intriguing facts about the 484 books that have been #1 New York Times bestsellers since the first list, 50 years ago, Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 1992.
|Saint Bernadette Soubirous|
St Bernadette of Lourdes
|Virgin, Consecrated Religious|
|Born||7 January 1844
Lourdes, Hautes-Pyrénées, France
|Died||16 April 1879(1879-04-16) (aged 35)
Nevers, Nièvre, France
|Venerated in||Catholic Church|
|Beatified||14 June 1925, Rome, by Pope Pius XI|
|Canonized||8 December 1933, Rome, by Pope Pius XI|
18 February (France, some traditionalist congregations)
|Patronage||Bodily illness, Lourdes, France, shepherds and shepherdesses, against poverty, people ridiculed for their faith|
Bernadette Soubirous (Occitan: Bernadeta Sobirós; 7 January 1844 – 16 April 1879) was the firstborn daughter of a miller from Lourdes (Lorda in Occitan), France, and is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church.
Soubirous is best known for the Marian apparitions of a “young lady” who asked for a chapel to be built at the nearby cave-grotto at Massabielle where apparitions are said to have occurred between 11 February and 16 July 1858. She would later receive recognition when the lady who appeared to her identified herself as the Immaculate Conception.
Despite initial skepticism from the Catholic Church, Soubirous’s claims were eventually declared “worthy of belief” after a canonical investigation, and the Marian apparition is now known as Our Lady of Lourdes. Since her death, Soubirous’s body has apparently remained internally incorrupt, but it is not without blemish; during her third exhumation in 1925, the firm of Pierre Imans made light wax coverings for her face and her hands due to the discoloration that her skin had undergone. These masks were placed on her face and hands before she was moved to her crystal reliquary in June 1925. The Marian shrine at Lourdes (Midi-Pyrénées, France) went on to become a major pilgrimage site, attracting over five million pilgrims of all denominations each year.
On 8 December 1933, Pope Pius XI declared Bernadette Soubirous a Saint of the Catholic Church. Her feast-day was initially fixed for 18 February—the day her Lady promised to make her happy, not in this life, but in the next—but is now observed in most places on the date of her death, 16 April.
Early stages of her life
Marie Bernarde Soubirous was the daughter of François Soubirous (1807–1871), a miller, and Louise (née Casteròt; 1825–1866), a laundress. She was the eldest of nine children—Bernadette, Jean (born and died 1845), Toinette (1846–1892), Jean-Marie (1848–1851), Jean-Marie (1851–1919), Justin (1855–1865), Pierre (1859–1931), Jean (born and died 1864), and a baby named Louise who died soon after her birth (1866).
Bernadette was born on 7 January 1844 and baptized at the local parish church, St. Pierre’s, on 9 January, her parents’ wedding anniversary. Bernadette’s godmother was Bernarde Casterot, her mother’s sister, a moderately wealthy widow who owned a tavern. Hard times had fallen on France and the family lived in extreme poverty. Bernadette was a sickly child and possibly due to this only measured 4 ft.7in. tall. She contracted cholera as a toddler and suffered severe asthma for the rest of her life. Bernadette attended the day school conducted by the Sisters of Charity and Christian Instruction from Nevers. Contrary to a belief popularized by Hollywood movies, St. Bernadette learned very little French, only studying French in school after age 13 due to being frequently ill and a poor learner. She could read and write very little due to her frequent illness. She spoke the language of Occitan, which was spoken by the local population of the Pyrenees region at that time and to a lesser degree today (which is similar to Catalan spoken in eastern Spain).
By the time of the events at the grotto, her family’s financial and social status had declined to the point where they lived in a one-room basement, formerly used as a jail, called le cachot, “the dungeon”, where they were housed for free by her mother’s cousin, André Sajoux.
On 11 February 1858, Bernadette, then aged 14, was out gathering firewood with her sister Marie and a friend near the grotto of Massabielle (Tuta de Massavielha) when she experienced her first vision. While the other girls crossed the little stream in front of the grotto and walked on, Bernadette stayed behind, looking for a place to cross where she wouldn’t get her stockings wet. She finally sat down to take her shoes off in order to cross the water and was lowering her stocking when she heard the sound of rushing wind, but nothing moved. A wild rose in a natural niche in the grotto, however, did move. From the niche, or rather the dark alcove behind it, “came a dazzling light, and a white figure”. This was the first of 18 visions of what she referred to as aquero (pronounced [aˈk(e)ɾɔ]), Gascon Occitan for “that”. In later testimony, she called it “a small young lady” (uo petito damizelo). Her sister and her friend stated that they had seen nothing.
On 14 February, after Sunday Mass, Bernadette, with her sister Marie and some other girls, returned to the grotto. Bernadette knelt down immediately, saying she saw the apparition again and falling into a trance. When one of the girls threw holy water at the niche and another threw a rock from above that shattered on the ground, the apparition disappeared. On her next visit, 18 February, she said that “the vision” asked her to return to the grotto every day for a fortnight.
This period of almost daily visions came to be known as la Quinzaine sacrée, “holy fortnight.” Initially, her parents, especially her mother, were embarrassed and tried to forbid her to go. The supposed apparition did not identify herself until the seventeenth vision. Although the townspeople who believed she was telling the truth assumed she saw the Virgin Mary, Bernadette never claimed it to be Mary, consistently using the word aquero. She described the lady as wearing a white veil, a blue girdle and with a yellow rose on each foot — compatible with “a description of any statue of the Virgin in a village church”.
Bernadette’s story caused a sensation with the townspeople, who were divided in their opinions on whether or not Bernadette was telling the truth. Some believed her to have a mental illness and demanded she be put in an asylum.
The other contents of Bernadette’s reported visions were simple and focused on the need for prayer and penance. On 25 February she explained that the vision had told her “to drink of the water of the spring, to wash in it and to eat the herb that grew there,” as an act of penance. To everyone’s surprise, the next day the grotto was no longer muddy but clear water flowed. On 2 March, at the thirteenth of the alleged apparitions, Bernadette told her family that the lady said that “a chapel should be built and a procession formed”.
Her 16th claimed vision, which she stated went on for over an hour, was on 25 March. According to Bernadette’s account, during that visitation, she again asked the woman for her name but the lady just smiled back. She repeated the question three more times and finally heard the lady say, in Gascon Occitan, “I am the Immaculate Conception” (Qué soï era immaculado councepcioũ, a phonetic transcription of Que soi era immaculada concepcion).
Some of the people who interviewed her after her revelation of the visions thought her simple-minded. However, despite being rigorously interviewed by officials of both the Catholic Church and the French government, she stuck consistently to her story.
Results of her visions
After investigation, Church authorities confirmed the authenticity of the apparitions in 1862. In the 150 years since Bernadette dug up the spring, 69 cures have been verified by the Lourdes Medical Bureau as “inexplicable” — after what the Church claims are “extremely rigorous scientific and medical examinations” that failed to find any other explanation. The Lourdes Commission that examined Bernadette after the visions ran an intensive analysis on the water and found that, while it had a high mineral content, it contained nothing out of the ordinary that would account for the cures attributed to it. Bernadette said that it was faith and prayer that cured the sick.
Her request to the local priest to build a chapel at the site of her visions eventually gave rise to a number of chapels and churches at Lourdes. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes is now one of the major Catholic pilgrimage sites in the world. One of the churches built at the site, the Basilica of St. Pius X, can accommodate 25,000 people and was dedicated by the future Pope John XXIII when he was the Papal Nuncio to France. Close to 5 million pilgrims from all over the world visit Lourdes (population of about 15,000) every year to pray and to drink the miraculous water, believing that they obtain from the Lord healing of the body and of the spirit.
Disliking the attention she was attracting, Bernadette went to the hospice school run by the Sisters of Charity of Nevers where she had learned to read and write. Although she considered joining the Carmelites, her health precluded her entering any of the strict contemplative orders. On 29 July 1866, with 42 other candidates, she took the religious habit of a postulant and joined the Sisters of Charity at their motherhouse at Nevers. Her Mistress of Novices was Sister Marie Therese Vauzou. The Mother Superior at the time gave her the name Marie-Bernarde in honor of her godmother who was named “Bernarde”.
Bernadette spent the rest of her brief life there, working as an assistant in the infirmary and later as a sacristan, creating beautiful embroidery for altar cloths and vestments. Her contemporaries admired her humility and spirit of sacrifice. One day, asked about the apparitions, she replied:
The Virgin used me as a broom to remove the dust. When the work is done, the broom is put behind the door again.
She later contracted tuberculosis of the bone in her right knee. She had followed the development of Lourdes as a pilgrimage shrine while she still lived at Lourdes, but was not present for the consecration of the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception there in 1876.
For several months prior to her death, she was unable to take an active part in convent life. She eventually died of her long-term illness at the age of 35 on 16 April 1879 (Easter Wednesday), while praying the holy rosary. On her deathbed, as she suffered from severe pain and in keeping with the Virgin Mary’s admonition of “Penance, Penance, Penance,” Bernadette proclaimed that “all this is good for Heaven!” Her final words were, “Blessed Mary, Mother of God, pray for me! A poor sinner, a poor sinner”. Bernadette’s body was laid to rest in the Saint Gildard Convent.
Bernadette Soubirous was declared blessed on 14 June 1925 by Pope Pius XI. She was canonized by Pius XI on 8 December 1933.
In the spring of 2015, the town of Lourdes lobbied for Bernadette’s remains to be returned to Lourdes, a move opposed by the city of Nevers.
Bishop Gauthey of Nevers and the Church exhumed the body of Bernadette Soubirous on 22 September 1909, in the presence of representatives appointed by the postulators of the cause, two doctors and a sister of the community. They claimed that although the crucifix in her hand and her rosary had both oxidized, her body appeared incorrupt — preserved from decomposition. This was cited as one of the miracles to support her canonization. They washed and reclothed her body before burial in a new double casket.
The Church exhumed the corpse a second time on 3 April 1919. A doctor who examined the body noted, “The body is practically mummified, covered with patches of mildew and quite a notable layer of salts, which appear to be calcium salts. … The skin has disappeared in some places, but it is still present on most parts of the body.”
In 1925, the church exhumed the body for a third time. They took relics, which were sent to Rome. A precise imprint of the face was molded so that the firm of Pierre Imans in Paris could make a wax mask based on the imprints and on some genuine photos to be placed on her body. This was common practice for relics in France as it was feared that the blackish tinge to the face and the sunken eyes and nose would make an unpleasant impression on the public. Imprints of the hands were also taken for the presentation of the body and the making of wax casts. The remains were then placed in a gold and crystal reliquary in the Chapel of Saint Bernadette at the mother house in Nevers.
Three years later in 1928, Doctor Comte published a report on the exhumation of Blessed Bernadette in the second issue of the Bulletin de I’Association medicale de Notre-Dame de Lourdes.
“I would have liked to open the left side of the thorax to take the ribs as relics and then remove the heart which I am certain must have survived. However, as the trunk was slightly supported on the left arm, it would have been rather difficult to try and get at the heart without doing too much noticeable damage. As the Mother Superior had expressed a desire for the Saint’s heart to be kept together with the whole body, and as Monsignor the Bishop did not insist, I gave up the idea of opening the left-hand side of the thorax and contented myself with removing the two right ribs which were more accessible. … What struck me during this examination, of course, was the state of perfect preservation of the skeleton, the fibrous tissues of the muscles (still supple and firm), of the ligaments, and of the skin, and above all the totally unexpected state of the liver after 46 years. One would have thought that this organ, which is basically soft and inclined to crumble, would have decomposed very rapidly or would have hardened to a chalky consistency. Yet, when it was cut it was soft and almost normal in consistency. I pointed this out to those present, remarking that this did not seem to be a natural phenomenon.”.
- In 1909 the French short movie Bernadette Soubirous et les Apparitions de Lourdes, directed by Honoré Le Sablais, is the first attempt to tell with the new cinematographic art the story of Bernadette, according to RAI 3 documentary Lourdes. La storia.
- In 1924 the French film Le miracle de Lourdes directed by Bernard Simon with Pierrette Lugand in the role of Bernadette.
- In 1926 the French film La vie merveilleuse de Bernadette directed by Georges Pallu and starring Alexandra as Bernadette.
- In 1935 the Portuguese Georges Pallu directed La Vierge du rocher (“The Virgin of the Rock”) with Micheline Masson in the role of Bernadette.
- Bernadette’s life was given a fictionalized treatment in Franz Werfel‘s novel, The Song of Bernadette, which was later adapted by Henry King into a 1943 film of the same name, starring Jennifer Jones as Bernadette and the uncredited Linda Darnell as the Immaculate Conception. Jones won the Best Actress Oscar for this portrayal.
- On 13 October 1958, the Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse presented Song of Bernadette on the CBS television network starring Italian-born film and television actress Pier Angeli as Bernadette Soubirous. The cast also featured Marian Seldes and Norman Alden. The program, hosted by Desi Arnaz, was adapted by Ludi Claire from a story by Margaret Gray Blanton. It was directed by both Ralph Alswang and Claudio Guzmán.
- In 1960, Andy Williams released his album The Village of St. Bernadette, which featured the 1959 song “The Village of St. Bernadette“. It was one of Williams’ few Top 10 singles he garnered throughout his career.
- In 1961 Daniéle Ajoret portrayed Bernadette in Bernadette of Lourdes (French title: Il suffit d’aimer or Love is Enough) of Robert Darène.
- In 1961 the German TV movie Bernadette Soubirous directed by Hans Quest and starring Kornelia Boje.
- Cristina Galbó portrayed Aquella joven de blanco (A Little Maiden in White), Spain, 1965, directed by León Klimovsky.
- In 1967 a French TV movie L’affaire Lourdes directed by Marcel Bluwal and starring Marie-Hélène Breillat as Bernadette.
- In 1981 Andrea del Boca portrayed Bernadette in a homonymous Argentine television mini-series directed by her father Nicolás del Boca (4 episodes of 1 hour each).
- In 1987, Jennifer Warnes recorded “Song of Bernadette“, co-written with Leonard Cohen, for her album of Cohen compositions Famous Blue Raincoat. The first verse refers to the “child called Bernadette” who “saw the Queen of Heaven once”. The song has been covered by other well-known artists, including Anne Murray and Bette Midler.
- Bernadette in 1988 and La Passion de Bernadette (The Passion of Bernadette) in 1989 by Jean Delannoy, starring Sydney Penny in the lead role.
- In 1990 Fernando Uribe and Steven Hahn directed a short animated film, Bernadette: La Princesa de Lourdes, produced by John Williams and Jorge Gonzalez, available in English since 1991 with the title Bernadette – The Princess of Lourdes.
- Angèle Osinsky portrayed Saint Bernadette in the Italian TV movie Lourdes, 2000, by Lodovico Gasparini.
- In 2002, the musical Vision by Jonathan Smith and Dominic Hartley, depicting the life of Bernadette, debuted in Liverpool. It has been performed in the UK, France, and Nigeria.
- In 2007 the Indian film Our Lady of Lourdes directed by V.R. Gopinath and starring Ajna Noiseux.
- In 2009 Bernadette, an opera in three acts by Trevor Jones. First performance 2016 in Gloucestershire, England.
- In 2011 the French short movie Grotta profunda, les humeurs du gouffre directed by Pauline Curnier-Jardin and starring Simon Fravega.
- In 2011 the French film Je m’appelle Bernadette directed by Jean Sagols and starring Katia Cuq (Katia Miran).
- In 2013 the French TV movie Une femme nommée Marie, directed by Robert Hossein and Dominique Thiel, starring Manon Le Moal.
- In 2013 “Bernadette Kaviyam” book released by Geetham Publications,Chennai. Bernadetts life explained with poetry by Poet C.P.Sivarasan,Mangalakuntu. Template:Http://www.vahai.myewebsite.com/articles/2013.html.
- In 2015 “Le Coup de Grâce”, an original song about St. Bernadette, was published and released on YouTube by American songwriter Orv Pibbs.
- Lourdes Medical Bureau
- Our Lady of Lourdes
- “Immaculate Mary” Lourdes hymn
- “Song of Bernadette” (song)
- “The Village of Saint Bernadette” (song)
Notes and references
- Ruggles, Robin (1999). Apparition shrines. Places of pilgrimage and prayer. Boston: Pauline Books & Media. p. 68. ISBN 0-81984799-2. ISBN 978-081984799-7.
- Foley O.F.M., Leonard, Saint of the Day (rev. Pat McCloskey, O.F.M.)
- “Saint Bernadette Soubirous”, Lives of Saints, John J. Crawley & Co., Inc.
- Taylor 42.
- Taylor 59–60.
- Taylor 62–63.
- Taylor 68–69.
- Taylor 84.
- “Biography of Bernadette Soubirous”. Biography Online.
- Taylor 88–90.
- “Miraculous cures in Lourdes”.
- “Religious life”.
- Fr. Paolo O. Pirlo, SHMI (1997). “Our Lady of Lourdes”. My First Book of Saints. Sons of Holy Mary Immaculate – Quality Catholic Publications. pp. 49–50. ISBN 971-91595-4-5.
- Henri Neuendorf (4 May 2015). “Battle over Remains of St. Bernadette of Lourdes – artnet News”. artnet News.
- Ruiz, Christophe (8 October 2008). “Cinéma: Un festival “Lourdes au cinéma””. La Semaine des Pyrénées (in French). Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- (in French) See occurrences on Google.
- (in Italian) RAI 3 – Lourdes. La storia.
- Credits at IMDb.
- The Song of Bernadette on IMDb .
- Theatrical poster.
- Christophe Ruiz. “Cinéma: Un festival “Lourdes au cinéma””.
- Bernadette Soubirous on IMDb .
- Aquella joven de blanco on IMDb .
- (in Spanish) “Los especiales de ATC”. 1981. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- “Forever Andrea Television”. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- Theatrical poster.
- VHS tape and DVD Release.
- Broadcast Productions (7 January 2016). “Home”.
- Our Lady of Lourdes on IMDb .
- DVD poster Archived 3 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine..
- Official website.
- Grotta profunda, les humeurs du gouffre on IMDb .
- Une femme nommée Marie on IMDb .
- on YouTube.
- Taylor, Thérèse (2003). Bernadette of Lourdes. Burns and Oates. ISBN 0-86012-337-5.
- Sadler, Anna T. The Wonders of Lourdes, (1875)
- Clarke, SJ, Richard. Lourdes: Its Inhabitants, Its Pilgrims, and Its Miracles, (1888)
- Keyes, Frances Parkinson. Bernadette of Lourdes (1955)
- Laurentin, Rene. Visage de Bernadette, Lourdes (1978), (French)
- Bernadette of Lourdes, St. Gildard, Nevers, France, (1926)
- Annales de Notre Dame de Lourdes (Missionaries of the Immaculate Conception), Lourdes 1871 (French)
- The Wonders of Massabielle at Lourdes (Rev. S. Pruvost), 1925
- Notre Dame de Lourdes (Henri Lasserre), Paris 1870 (French)
- Bernadette (Henri Lasserre), Paris 1879 (year of Bernadette’s death), (French)
- Our Lady of Lourdes (Henri Lasserre), June 1906 (English)
- The Miracle Joint at Lourdes From “Essays ” by Woolsey Teller, Copyright 1945 by The Truth Seeker Company, Inc. Critique of the Lourdes story.
- Our Lady of Lourdes (Henri Lasserre), 1875 (English)
- La Sainte Vierge a Lourdes, 1877 (French)
- Das Lied von Bernadette (Franz Werfel), 1953 (German)
- The Happening at Lourdes (Alan Neame), 1967
- Lourdes (Ruth Harris), 1999
- After Bernadette (Don Sharkey), 1945
- And I Shall Be Healed (Edeltraud Fulda), 1960
- Saint Bernadette (Margaret Trouncer), 1964
- A Queen’s Command (Anna Kuhn), 1947
- Bernadette (Marcelle Auclair), 1958
- A Holy Life: St. Bernadette of Lourdes (Patricia McEachern), 2005
- The Story of Bernadette (Rev. J. Lane), 1997
- The Wonder of Lourdes (John Oxenham), 1926
- Lourdes (Émile Zola), 1895 (German)
- Bernadette Speaks: A Life of Saint Bernadette Soubirous in Her Own Words, René Laurentin, Pauline Books and Media, 2000.
- St. Bernadette (Leonard Von Matt / Francis Trochu), 1957
- Bernadette of Lourdes (J.H. Gregory), 1914 (1st U.S. book)
- Lourdes (Émile Zola), 2000 (English)
- The Miracle of Bernadette (Margaret Gray Blanton), 1958
- My Witness, Bernadette (J.B. Estrade), 1951
- St. Bernadette Soubirous: 1844–1879, by Abbe Francois Trochu, TAN Books and Publishers, Inc., 1957.
- We Saw Her (B.G. Sandhurst), 1953
- Werfel, Franz. The Song of Bernadette, 1942
Magazines and articles
- “L’Illustration Journal Universal”: Story covering Bernadette and apparitions from time of apparitions (23 October 1858)
- “The London Illustrated News”: The Election of Pope Pius XI (11 February 1922)
- “L’Opinion Publique”: The Funeral of Pope Pius IX (14 March 1878)
- “The Illustrated London News”: The Conclave & Election of the Pope (9 March 1878)
- “The Graphic”: With the Lourdes Pilgrims (7 October 1876)
- “Harpers Weekly”: French Pilgrims – Romish Superstitions (16 November 1872)
- “The Graphic”: A Trip to the Pyrenees (12 October 1872)
- “Harpers Weekly”: The Last French Miracle (20 November 1858) – Recounts actual happenings at the time of apparitions
- “St. Paul Dispatch”: Throne of St. Peter Made Vacant by the Death of Pope Leo XIII, (21 July 1903)
- “St. Paul Dispatch”: Cardinal Sarto (St. Pope Pius X) of Venice Called to Throne of St. Peter, (5 August 1903)
- “The Minneapolis Journal”: Pope Pius X is Reported Dead; Relapse Caused by Grief Over War (19 August 1914)
- The Body of Saint Bernadette — Includes reports of her exhumation and photographs of her body and tomb.
- Notes on the Investigation, including facsimile of notes taken during an interview with Bernadette
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Notre-Dame de Lourdes
- “Bernadette Soubirous”. Find a Grave. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- Works by Bernadette Soubirous at Open Library
- Bernadette Soubirous at Goodreads
- Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes